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1000 - The 11th Century
In European culture the eleventh century is considered the beginning of the High Middle Ages, more generally termed the Early Middle Ages and included in the period of time known as the Dark Ages. By the eleventh century Egypt and Chola India had reached the peak of their military might and international influence and outstanding achievements in medieval Islamic technology and literature and Chinese arts, technology and sciences far outstripped those of Europe. In China inventions like the first printing with movable type had developed and the matured form of the Chinese pagoda were accomplished in Chinese architecture. But this century marked the end of the golden age for Chinese civilisation, science and technology as the Tang Dynasty was replaced by the Song. The century saw the decline of Byzantine Power and the beginning of Norman Domination in Europe. The eleventh century saw a beginning of the large growth of populations, towns and large settlements in Europe. William I compiled the Doomsday Book and introduced a system of feudalism to Europe and a system of organised capitalism and more sophisticated, commercialised culture was developing by late century. The century saw Europe establish the first universities (University of Bologna 1088) and the beginning of the European concern for learning. This was the end of the pagan dominated Viking era and the time which saw growth in the prominent role of popes, the beginning of the first Crusades and the Great Schism of the Christian church. Christian Europe was about to thrust itself upon the world and by the late medieval period was poised to dominate the globe. In Europe it is the end of the era of the popularity of Byzantine Icons, portable paintings and Illuminated manuscripts.
Michelangelo - Copyright 2008 - This project has been funded with support from the European Commission